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 历史材料解析题答题技巧一:审题

更新时间:2019-01-15 14:05

 
 
在历史考试中,我们发现历史材料分析题中常见材料类型有哪些?答题技巧是什么?文字材料这是最基本、最常见的。做历史材料解析题有三种环节,分别是读、找、答。带着问题去读材料,才能更有针对性地解答问题,答题前要写出简单的题纲。
 
高中历史材料解析题答题技巧
 
  历史材料解析题答题技巧一:审题
 
  ①一般情况下,应读两遍。第一遍粗读,游览,了解大意。主要任务有两个:第一,了解材料涉及的时间、地点、人物、事件。第二,注意各段材料的联系,读出材料叙述的核心内容。
 
  ②审读设问,带着设问仔细读材料,将材料读懂、读透。
 
  a.细读材料时要注意具体材料具体分析。如古代史的材料多为文言文,须像语文课上分析古文一样,进行字斟句酌,读透材料的本义并挖掘其引申义。世界史的材料多为外来的翻译文,有的句子很长,很难读懂;此时,可按语文课中划分句子成分的办法来处理,先找句子的主、谓、宾语,再找定、补、状语等其他修饰成分。
 
  b.阅读材料时,一定要认真审读设问。因为设问的实质是为解析材料确定方向,使考生在阅读材料时能够充分提取材料所提供的有效信息。所以明确设问要求,据设问考查的方向重新仔细读材料,是尽快获得有效信息的捷径。
 
  c.阅读材料时,除读懂材料正文外,还要特别注意提示性文字和材料出处。这些说明性文字能够提供材料的时间、国别、作者、背景等信息,给考生某种暗示和引导,有时能起到“得来全不费工夫”之效。
 
  历史材料解析题答题技巧二:找联系
 
  在实际解题过程中,“找”与“读”往往是一致的,不需要将两者截然分开.
 
  ①阅读全部材料之后,要找出材料之间的联系。一般每一道材料题都有一个中心。即使有些材料解析题的一些材料观点完全相反,它也是围绕一个中心而设计的。找出了中心,然后围绕这个中心,确认材料涉及的内容或对课本知识进行迁移,便找到了解题的突破口。
 
  ②找出材料与教材的连接点。尽管材料解析题具有“新材料、新情况、新问题”的特点,但不管多新,必定与教材有不可分割的联系。把材料中的重点信息与教材的史实、观点相对照,确认材料与教材的哪章、哪节相关联,这样便将材料与教材挂靠在一起,挂靠准了,解析的大方向便明确了。
 
  ③找出材料与设问的相关点,体会命题者的意图。材料解析题是“史论结合”的典型题目。读材料是为了回答设问,回答设问离不开材料,因为“论从史出”,结论要从对材料的理解、发掘、升华中得出。材料解析题的设问,一定是从材料出发的。所以,读材料时要处处想着设问,把设问放到材料中相互对照。或从材料中找出回答设问的信息;或从设问行文的信息中重新获得读材料时忽略了的重要之处,然后通过分析、判断得出结论。在找材料与设问的相关点时,领会命题者采用这些材料的意图至关重要。
 
  ④审读设问,找出不同材料解析题的不同要求。从近几年的高考题来看,材料解析题的设问与作答主要有以下几种:一是层层发问、逐次诱导的递进式。即围绕一个中心,由表及里、由浅入深,层层推进。二是归纳评述论证式。三是1997年以来出现的要求表述成文的材料题。弄清设问的不同要求,解答过程中可避免大的失误。
 
  历史材料解析题答题技巧三:答题
 
  组织答案时注意的问题:
 
  a.按问作答。注意针对性和具体性。材料解析题多由几问组成,每问都有具体指向,要根据具体要求,组织答案,并依据分值来确定答案内容的多少。
 
  b.克服思维定势,坚持论从史出。命题者有时为体现自己的学术观点,则选取与教材观点相左的材料,用以考查提取材料信息和创新能力。因此,回答时要克服思维定势,对材料作具体分析,从材料中提取有效信息。
 
  C.坚持辩证唯物主义和历史唯物主义的正确观点,准确辨别材料观点的正误。所引用材料,多是原始史料,难免带有封建史学界和资产阶级史学界落后史学观点的色彩。必须按照正确的观点对史料进行辨析。
 
 
In the history examination, we find out what kinds of materials are commonly used in the analysis of historical materials? What are the answering skills? Written materials are the most basic and common. There are three links in doing historical material analysis questions: reading, searching and answering. Only when you read the material with questions can you answer the questions more pertinently. Before answering the questions, you should write a simple outline.
 
Answer Skills of Senior High School History Material Analysis Questions
 
Answer Skills for Analytical Questions of Historical Materials Part 1: Examination of Questions
 
In general, you should read it twice. Read it carefully for the first time, visit it and get the general idea. There are two main tasks: first, to understand the time, place, people and events involved in the material. Secondly, pay attention to the connection of the materials in each paragraph and read out the core content of the material narration.
 
(2) Reading and asking questions, reading the materials carefully with questions, and reading the materials thoroughly.
 
A. When reading materials carefully, we should pay attention to the concrete analysis of specific materials. If the materials of ancient history are mostly classical Chinese, we should carefully consider the words and sentences, read the original meaning of the materials and dig out their extended meanings, just like the analysis of ancient Chinese in Chinese class. The materials of world history are mostly foreign translations, and some sentences are long and difficult to understand. At this time, we can divide the sentence components according to the method of Chinese class, first find the subject, predicate and object of the sentence, then find other modifiers such as complement, adverbial and so on.
 
B. When reading materials, we must carefully read questions. Because the essence of questioning is to determine the direction of analytic materials, so that candidates can fully extract the effective information provided by the materials when reading them. Therefore, it is a shortcut to get effective information as soon as possible to make clear the requirement of questioning and read the materials carefully according to the direction of questioning.
 
C. When reading materials, in addition to understanding the body of the material, special attention should be paid to the prompting text and source of the material. These explanatory texts can provide information about the time, country, author and background of the material, give the candidates some hints and guidance, and sometimes play a "no effort" effect.
 
Answer Skills for Analytical Questions of Historical Materials II: Finding Connections
 
In the process of solving practical problems, "finding" and "reading" are often identical, and there is no need to separate them completely.
 
After reading all the materials, we should find out the relationship between them.  Usually every material question has a center. Even if some material analysis questions have completely opposite material views, they are designed around a center. Find out the center, and then around this center, confirm the content of the materials involved or transfer the textbook knowledge, and find a breakthrough in solving the problem.
 
(2) Find out the connection between materials and textbooks. Although the problem of material analysis has the characteristics of "new materials, new situations and new problems", no matter how new it is, it must be inextricably linked with the textbook. Comparing the key information in the materials with the historical facts and viewpoints of the textbooks, confirming which chapters and sections of the materials and textbooks are related, so that the materials and textbooks are linked together and accurate, and the general direction of analysis is clear.
 
(3) Find out the relevant points between the material and the question, and realize the propositioner's intention. Material analysis is a typical topic of the combination of history and theory. Reading materials is to answer questions. Answering questions can not be separated from materials. Because "theory comes from history", conclusions should be drawn from the understanding, excavation and sublimation of materials. The question of material analysis must be based on material. Therefore, when reading the material, we should think about the question everywhere, and put the question into the material to compare with each other. Or find out the information to answer the questions from the materials, or get the important points which are ignored in the reading materials from the information of the questions, and then draw a conclusion through analysis and judgment. When looking for the relevant points of materials and questions, it is essential to understand the intention of the propositioner to use these materials.
 
(4) Examine the questions and find out the different requirements for different materials. In recent years, from the perspective of college entrance examination questions, there are mainly the following kinds of questions and answers for material analysis questions: one is the progressive way of asking questions layer by layer and inducing them step by step. That is, around a center, from the surface to the inside, from the shallow to the deep, layer by layer. The second is the inductive and commentary argumentation. Thirdly, since 1997, there have been material topics requiring written expression. Making clear the different requirements of setting up questions and avoiding big mistakes in the process of answering them.
 
Answer Skills of Historical Material Analysis Question 3: Answer Questions
 
Questions to be noted when organizing answers:
 
A. Answer by question. Pay attention to pertinence and specificity. Material analysis questions are mostly composed of several questions, each of which has a specific direction. Answers should be organized according to specific requirements, and the number of answers should be determined according to the score.
 
B. Overcoming the fixed thinking pattern and sticking to the theory from history. In order to embody their own academic views, proposers sometimes choose materials which are different from the views of textbooks to test their ability to extract material information and innovate. Therefore, when answering, we should overcome the thinking stereotype, make a concrete analysis of the material, and extract effective information from the material.
 
C. Adhere to the correct viewpoints of dialectical materialism and historical materialism, and accurately distinguish the right and wrong viewpoints of materials. Most of the materials cited are primitive historical materials, which inevitably have the color of backward historical viewpoints in feudal and bourgeois historical circles. The historical data must be differentiated and analyzed from the correct point of view.
 
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