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高中政治选择题答题技巧总结;

更新时间:2019-01-15 14:05

高中政治选择题答题技巧总结;
 
 
解题的基本方法解答政治选择题应遵循先审题干、后审题肢。肢干相连、以干求肢的原则。要贯彻这一原则,在解题时必须做到“四审”和“四排”。
 
高中政治选择题答题技巧 
 
1高中政治选择题答题技巧:四审
 
  一、审题型。首先,要确定题型,是单项选择题,组合式选择题,还是不定项选择题,特别要注意在不定项选择题中的单项选择题。由于判断失误多,部分考生往往不能将单项选择题从众多的多项选择题材中分辨出来,以致于把简单的单项选择题当成多项选择题来做,结果导致失误。因此,选择题的题型要求不同,取舍就各异。其次,要确定好思维方向。
 
 
  二、审题干的规定性。审题干就是要弄清题意,明确题干的规定性,这是做好选择题的关键。如何确定题干的规定性呢?可从如下两方面入手。首先,要明确题意。从2000年高考试题看,绝大部分选择题的题干都以材料的形式出现,这一段材料主要讲什么意思,必须读懂、弄通。同时,要明确材料后面的要求,规定我们解决哪些问题。从2000年高考试题来看,主要用“表明”、“说明”、“启示”、“体现”、“原因”等五种规定性来限定答题的思路。其次,要着重弄清题干在时空、内容、逻辑三方面的规定性,以便确定题干规定性的知识范围。如时空范围的规定性是“现阶段”,还是“历史上”;是“社会主义民主”,还是“资本主义民主”。又如内容范围的规定性是“经济常识”,还是“政治常识”或“哲学常识”;是有关“社会主义市场经济方面的知识”内容,还是有关“国家制度方面的知识”内容。再如逻辑方面的规定性是以果寻因,还是以因求果;是找区别点,还是要找共同点等。
 
 
  三、审题肢。遵循以干求肢的原则。大家在审题肢时要注意确定四种不同的题肢:第一、确定哪些是正确的题肢,即符合题干规定性要求的题肢。第二、确定哪些是错误题肢,即存在明显知识性错误的题肢。第三、确定哪些是干扰性题肢,即题肢本身的知识内容正确,但与题干规定性的要求不符。第四、确定哪些是一级引申题肢,哪些是二级引申或多级引申题肢。做到正确题肢或一级引申题肢入选,错误题肢、干扰题肢、二级引申或多级引申题肢不选。
 
 
  四、审题干与题肢之间的关系。从语文基础知识的角度来看,题干与题肢之间的知识结构是陈述句结构,题干是主谓结构,题肢则是宾语。这一结构形式就决定了在解选择题时,只能做到以干求肢。通过分析寻找题干与题肢之间的最佳联系,即题肢与题干规定性的一致性。只有这样才能做到肢干相连,上下结构相通。
 
1高中政治选择题答题技巧:四排
 
  一排错项。题肢的观点本身错误或包含着部分错误的要排除,但逆向选择题除外。
 
  二排重项。题肢的观点不在于说明题干的规定性,而是对题干规定性的变相重复。这就要求我们对干、肢进行反复的比较,找出两者的相同相异点,如果题肢的观点与题干规定性的要求是变相重复的,应排除。
 
  三排异项。题肢的观点虽然正确,但与题干的规定性无关,这样的选项应排除。
 
  四排大于或小于项。题肢的知识内容大于或小于题干规定性的要求,这样的选项也应排除。
 
  为进一步说明以上解题原则,下面以实例说明:
 
  我国现阶段的政体是由什么决定的,下列理解正确的是A由我国无产阶级专政的国家性质B由我国的宗教制度C由我国的根本政治制度D由我国的民主制度E国体
 
  四审的结果是:第一、本题是单项选择题,是正向选择题,是内涵型选择题。第二、题干的规定性中“政体是由什么决定的”是关键词;“我国现阶段”是限定词,规定了时空范围,内容是政治常识。第三、A项正确,应入选。
 
B项是错误选项,应排除。
C项与题干的规定性重复,应排除。
D项本身的知识内容正确,但与题干规定性的要求不一致,应排除。
E项的观点大于题干规定性的要求,应排除。
 
  由此可见,在解答此题时通过“四排”,即排B项叫排错,排C项叫排重,排D项叫排异,E项叫排大的解题方法,将各种与题干规定性要求无关的选项排除后,正确选项也就自然产生了。当然,并不是在所有的选择题中都同时存在以上四种干扰或错误选项,有的可能只有一项,有的可能有二项或者三项,有的可能一项也没有,四个选项都正确。因此,同学们在解选择题时一定要根据各题的具体要求,从各题的客观实际出发,才能达到应有的解题效果。
 
 
 
The basic method of solving political choice questions should follow the principle of first examining the stem of the question and then examining the limb of the question. The principle of joining limbs and trunks and seeking limbs by doing. In order to implement this principle, we must carry out the "Four Trials" and "Four Rows" in solving problems.
 
High School Political Choice Question Answering Skills
 
 
 
1 High School Political Choice Question Answering Skills: Fourth Trial
 
First, the type of examination. First of all, to determine the type of question, is a single choice, combination choice, or indefinite choice, special attention should be paid to the single choice in indefinite choice. Because of many errors in judgment, some candidates often fail to distinguish single-choice questions from many multiple-choice topics, so that simple single-choice questions are treated as multiple-choice questions, resulting in errors. Therefore, different types of questions require different choices. Secondly, we should determine the direction of thinking.
 
 
2. Provisional nature of examination questions. Examination of the title is to clarify the meaning of the title and clarify the prescriptive nature of the title, which is the key to doing a good job in choosing the topic. How to determine the stipulation of the title? We can start from the following two aspects. First of all, we need to clarify the meaning of the topic. From the 2000 College Entrance Examination questions, most of the choices are in the form of materials. What is the main meaning of this material? It must be understood and understood. At the same time, we should clarify the requirements behind the materials and stipulate what problems we should solve. From the 2000 College Entrance Examination questions, it mainly uses five prescriptions, namely "indication", "explanation", "enlightenment", "manifestation" and "reason" to limit the thinking of answering questions. Secondly, it is important to clarify the prescriptive nature of the title stem in three aspects: space-time, content and logic, so as to determine the prescriptive knowledge scope of the title stem. For example, the stipulation of space-time scope is "present stage" or "history", "socialist democracy" or "capitalist democracy". Another example is whether the scope of content is defined as "economic common sense" or "political common sense" or "philosophical common sense", "knowledge of socialist market economy" or "knowledge of state system". Another example is whether the logic stipulation is to seek the cause by the result or by the cause; to find the difference or the common ground, etc.
 
 
3. Examine the subject limbs. Follow the principle of seeking limbs by doing. We should pay attention to four different types of inscriptions when examining the inscriptions. First, we should determine which ones are correct inscriptions, that is, inscriptions that meet the prescriptive requirements of the inscriptions. Secondly, to determine which are wrong inscriptions, that is, inscriptions with obvious knowledge errors. Thirdly, the knowledge content of the disturbing inscriptions is correct, but it is not in accordance with the prescriptive requirements of the inscriptions. Fourth, determine which is the first-level extension of the limb, which is the second-level extension or multi-level extension of the limb. Correct or first-level extension questions should be selected, but wrong, disturbing, second-level or multi-level extension questions should not be selected.
 
 
Fourth, the relationship between the examining stem and the examining limbs.  From the perspective of basic Chinese knowledge, the knowledge structure between the title stem and the title limb is a declarative sentence structure, the title stem is a subject-predicate structure, and the title limb is an object. This structural form determines that when solving the choice questions, we can only do it by doing.  Through the analysis, we can find the best relationship between the title stem and the title limb, that is, the consistency of the prescription between the title stem and the title limb. Only in this way can the limbs and trunks be connected and the upper and lower structures are connected.
 
1 High School Political Choice Question Answering Skills: Four Rows
 
A row of errors. The viewpoint of the inscribed limb itself is wrong or contains some errors to be excluded, except for the adverse selection question.
 
Two rows of duplicates. The viewpoint of inscribing limbs does not lie in the prescriptive nature of explaining the inscriptive stem, but in the disguised repetition of the prescriptive nature of inscriptive stem. This requires us to make repeated comparisons between the limbs and trunks to find out the similarities and differences between them. If the viewpoints of the limbs and the prescriptive requirements of the trunks are disguised and repetitive, they should be excluded.
 
Three rows of discrepancies. Although the viewpoint of inscribing limbs is correct, it has nothing to do with the stipulation of inscribing stem. Such an option should be excluded.
 
Four rows are larger or smaller than the item. Such an option should also be excluded if the knowledge content of the inscribed limbs is greater or less than the prescriptive requirements of the inscribed limbs.
 
To further illustrate the above principles of problem solving, the following examples are given to illustrate:
 
What determines our present political system? The following understandings are correct: A is determined by the national nature of our proletarian dictatorship, B by our religious system, C by our fundamental political system, D by our democratic system, E by our democratic system.
 
The results of the fourth trial are as follows: Firstly, this topic is a single choice question, a positive choice question and a connotative choice question. Secondly, in the prescriptive nature of the title, "what determines the political system" is the key word; "the present stage of our country" is the determinant, which defines the scope of time and space, and the content is political common sense. Third, item A is correct and should be selected.
 
Item B is an incorrect option and should be excluded.
The stipulated duplication of item C and the title should be excluded.
The knowledge content of item D itself is correct, but it is inconsistent with the prescriptive requirements of the title and should be excluded.
The point of view of item E is greater than the requirement of prescriptive title, and should be excluded.
 
It can be seen that when solving this problem, the correct choice will naturally come into being after excluding all kinds of options that are not related to the prescriptive requirements of the title by "four rows", namely, row B is called error-elimination, row C is called weight-exclusion, row D is called exclusion, and row E is called exclusion. Of course, not all the above four kinds of interference or error options exist at the same time, some may only have one, some may have two or three, some may not have one, four options are correct. Therefore, students must solve the choice of questions according to the specific requirements of each question, from the objective reality of each question, in order to achieve the desired results.
 
 
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